package.json

Remarks

You can create package.json with

npm init

which will ask you about basic facts about your projects, including license identifier.

Basic project definition

{
    "name": "my-project",
    "version": "0.0.1",
    "description": "This is a project.",
    "author": "Someone <someone@example.com>",
    "contributors": [{
        "name": "Someone Else",
        "email": "else@example.com"
    }],
    "keywords": ["improves", "searching"]
}
FieldDescription
namea required field for a package to install. Needs to be lowercase, single word without spaces. (Dashes and underscores allowed)
versiona required field for the package version using semantic versioning.
descriptiona short description of the project
authorspecifies the author of the package
contributorsan array of objects, one for each contributor
keywordsan array of strings, this will help people finding your package

Dependencies

"dependencies": { "module-name": "0.1.0" }

  • exact: 0.1.0 will install that specific version of the module.
  • newest minor version: ^0.1.0 will install the newest minor version, for example 0.2.0, but won't install a module with a higher major version e.g. 1.0.0
  • newest patch: 0.1.x or ~0.1.0 will install the newest patch version available, for example 0.1.4, but won't install a module with higher major or minor version, e.g. 0.2.0 or 1.0.0.
  • wildcard: * will install the latest version of the module.
  • git repository: the following will install a tarball from the master branch of a git repo. A #sha, #tag or #branch can also be provided:
    • GitHub: user/project or user/project#v1.0.0
    • url: git://gitlab.com/user/project.git or git://gitlab.com/user/project.git#develop
  • local path: file:../lib/project

After adding them to your package.json, use the command npm install in your project directory in terminal.

devDependencies

"devDependencies": {
    "module-name": "0.1.0"
}

For dependencies required only for development, like testing styling proxies ext. Those dev-dependencies won't be installed when running "npm install" in production mode.

Exploring package.json

A package.json file, usually present in the project root, contains metadata about your app or module as well as the list of dependencies to install from npm when running npm install.

To initialize a package.json type npm init in your command prompt.

To create a package.json with default values use:

npm init --yes
# or
npm init -y

To install a package and save it to package.json use:

npm install {package name} --save

You can also use the shorthand notation:

 npm i -S {package name}

NPM aliases -S to --save and -D to --save-dev to save in your production or development dependencies respectively.

The package will appear in your dependencies; if you use --save-dev instead of --save, the package will appear in your devDependencies.

Important properties of package.json:

{
  "name": "module-name",
  "version": "10.3.1",
  "description": "An example module to illustrate the usage of a package.json",
  "author": "Your Name <your.name@example.org>",
  "contributors": [{
    "name": "Foo Bar",
    "email": "foo.bar@example.com"
  }],
  "bin": {
    "module-name": "./bin/module-name"
  },
  "scripts": {
    "test": "vows --spec --isolate",
    "start": "node index.js",
    "predeploy": "echo About to deploy",
    "postdeploy": "echo Deployed",
    "prepublish": "coffee --bare --compile --output lib/foo src/foo/*.coffee"
  },
  "main": "lib/foo.js",
  "repository": {
    "type": "git",
    "url": "https://github.com/username/repo"
  },
  "bugs": {
    "url": "https://github.com/username/issues"
  },
  "keywords": [
    "example"
  ],
  "dependencies": {
    "express": "4.2.x"
  },
  "devDependencies": {
    "assume": "<1.0.0 || >=2.3.1 <2.4.5 || >=2.5.2 <3.0.0"
  },
  "peerDependencies": {
    "moment": ">2.0.0"
  },
  "preferGlobal": true,
  "private": true,
  "publishConfig": {
    "registry": "https://your-private-hosted-npm.registry.domain.com"
  },
  "subdomain": "foobar",
  "analyze": true,
  "license": "MIT",
  "files": [
    "lib/foo.js"
  ]
}

Information about some important properties:

name

The unique name of your package and should be down in lowercase. This property is required and your package will not install without it.

  1. The name must be less than or equal to 214 characters.
  2. The name can't start with a dot or an underscore.
  3. New packages must not have uppercase letters in the name.
version

The version of the package is specified by Semantic Versioning (semver). Which assumes that a version number is written as MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH and you increment the:

  1. MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes
  2. MINOR version when you add functionality in a backwards-compatible manner
  3. PATCH version when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes
description

The description of the project. Try to keep it short and concise.

author

The author of this package.

bin

An object which is used to expose binary scripts from your package. The object assumes that the key is the name of the binary script and the value a relative path to the script.

This property is used by packages that contain a CLI (command line interface).

script

A object which exposes additional npm commands. The object assumes that the key is the npm command and the value is the script path. These scripts can get executed when you run npm run {command name} or npm run-script {command name}.

Packages that contain a command line interface and are installed locally can be called without a relative path. So instead of calling ./node-modules/.bin/mocha you can directly call mocha.

main

The main entry point to your package. When calling require('{module name}') in node, this will be actual file that is required.

It's highly advised that requiring the main file does not generate any side affects. For instance, requiring the main file should not start up a HTTP server or connect to a database. Instead, you should create something like exports.init = function () {...} in your main script.

keywords

An array of keywords which describe your package. These will help people find your package.

devDependencies

These are the dependencies that are only intended for development and testing of your module. The dependencies will be installed automatically unless the NODE_ENV=production environment variable has been set. If this is the case you can still these packages using npm install --dev

peerDependencies

If you are using this module, then peerDependencies lists the modules you must install alongside this one. For example, moment-timezone must be installed alongside moment because it is a plugin for moment, even if it doesn't directly require("moment").

preferGlobal

A property that indicates that this page prefers to be installed globally using npm install -g {module-name}. This property is used by packages that contain a CLI (command line interface).

In all other situations you should NOT use this property.

publishConfig

The publishConfig is an object with configuration values that will be used for publishing modules. The configuration values that are set override your default npm configuration.

The most common use of the publishConfig is to publish your package to a private npm registry so you still have the benefits of npm but for private packages. This is done by simply setting URL of your private npm as value for the registry key.

files

This is an array of all the files to include in the published package. Either a file path or folder path can be used. All the contents of a folder path will be included. This reduces the total size of your package by only including the correct files to be distributed. This field works in conjunction with a .npmignore rules file.

Source

Extended project definition

Some of the additional attributes are parsed by the npm website like repository, bugs or homepage and shown in the infobox for this packages

{
  "main": "server.js",  
  "repository" :  {
    "type": "git",
    "url": "git+https://github.com/<accountname>/<repositoryname>.git"
  },
  "bugs": {
    "url": "https://github.com/<accountname>/<repositoryname>/issues"
  },
  "homepage": "https://github.com/<accountname>/<repositoryname>#readme",
  "files": [
    "server.js", // source files
    "README.md", // additional files
    "lib" // folder with all included files
  ]
}
FieldDescription
mainEntry script for this package. This script is returned when a user requires the package.
repositoryLocation and type of the public repository
bugsBugtracker for this package (e.g. github)
homepageHomepage for this package or the general project
filesList of files and folders which should be downloaded when a user does a npm install <packagename>

Scripts

You can define scripts that can be executed or are triggered before or after another script.

{
  "scripts": {
    "pretest": "scripts/pretest.js",
    "test": "scripts/test.js",
    "posttest": "scripts/posttest.js"
  }
}

In this case, you can execute the script by running either of these commands:

$ npm run-script test
$ npm run test
$ npm test
$ npm t

Pre-defined scripts

Script NameDescription
prepublishRun before the package is published.
publish, postpublishRun after the package is published.
preinstallRun before the package is installed.
install, postinstallRun after the package is installed.
preuninstall, uninstallRun before the package is uninstalled.
postuninstallRun after the package is uninstalled.
preversion, versionRun before bump the package version.
postversionRun after bump the package version.
pretest, test, posttestRun by the npm test command
prestop, stop, poststopRun by the npm stop command
prestart, start, poststartRun by the npm start command
prerestart, restart, postrestartRun by the npm restart command

User-defined scripts

You can also define your own scripts the same way you do with the pre-defined scripts:

{
  "scripts": {
    "preci": "scripts/preci.js",
    "ci": "scripts/ci.js",
    "postci": "scripts/postci.js"
  }
}

In this case, you can execute the script by running either of these commands:

$ npm run-script ci
$ npm run ci

User-defined scripts also supports pre and post scripts, as shown in the example above.



2016-07-21
2017-06-09
Node.js Pedia
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